Marc FITOUSSI M.D
18-22 Queen Anne Street
W1G 8HU London
+44 20 7034 3326
-Goiters and benign nodules: there is a ratio of 1/8 when comparing man/women.
-Cancers: The ratio here is 1/4.
-Nodules: Frequency increases with age (70% of people 80 years old or above have one or many nodules)
-Cancer: There are 2 notable spikes showing increased risk: before 20 years old, and after 45.
INCREASING IN VOLUME (NODULES AND GOITERS) WITH NORMAL HORMONAL SECRETIONS
A nodule that does not take in the radioactive iodine used for scintigraphy is called a cold nodule.
It is a goiter that is limited to part of the thyroid gland, which does not secrete hormones.
The risk of it developing into a cancer is 1 out of 10, and therefore, a cold nodule of more than 20mm in diameter must be surgically removed.
The entire thyroid gland is enlarged, usually in order to compensate for a difficulty to secrete hormones in a sufficient amount.
This unpredictable increase in size, can lead to a compressing or nearby organs like:
-Trachea, which will lead to asphyxia,
-Esophagus, making it impossible to swallow,
-Nerves controlling the vocal cords, modifying the voice
Furthermore, there may be abnormal cells in the cold nodules.
THYROID HORMONES SECRETION DISORDER
There is an underproduction of hormones.
Symptoms are: unexplained weight gain, fatigue (overtiredness), hair or eyebrows loss, constipation, chilliness, bradycardia, mental slowing.
Surgical treatments are never used here, since there is no risk of cancer.
There is an overproduction of hormones.
Symptoms are: increased activity in general such as: excessive sweating, tachycardia, diarrhea, nervousness, weight loss, and at a later time, heart problems.
Here too, there is no risk of cancer with an autonomous nodule or the Basedow’s disease.
There are for varieties:
-Basedow’s disease (or Grave’s disease)
-Basedow’s goiter (or “Basedowified” goiter)
-Autonomous nodule (or toxic thyroid adenoma) or “hot” nodule (because it takes radioactive iodine used for scintigraphy)
-Toxic multiheteronodular goiter: a goiter with an increased hormonal secretion
18-22 Queen Anne Street W1G 8HU London
+44 20 7034 3326